Database management is the system for managing information that supports the organization’s business processes. It involves storing data, disseminating it to applications and users making edits as needed and monitoring changes to data and stopping data corruption due unexpected failure. It is part of the overall infrastructure of a business that supports decision making in corporate growth, as well as compliance with laws like the GDPR and California Consumer Privacy Act.
The first database systems were invented in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They evolved into information management systems (IMS) that allowed for the storage and retrieve massive amounts of data for a variety of purposes, ranging from calculating inventory to supporting complicated financial accounting and human resources functions.
A database is a collection of tables that arrange data in accordance with a specific pattern, such as one-to-many relationships. It makes use of primary keys to identify records, and also allows cross-references among tables. Each table contains a number of fields, referred to as attributes, that provide information about the entities that comprise the data. The most widely used type of database currently is a relational model developed by E. F. “Ted” Codd at IBM in the 1970s. This model is based on normalizing data to make it simpler to use. It is also easier to update data because it doesn’t require the modification of certain sections of the database.
Most DBMSs can support multiple types of databases by providing different internal and external levels of organization. The internal level concerns costs, scalability and other operational issues like the physical layout of the database. The external level is the representation of the database in user interfaces and applications. It may include a mix of external views based on different data models. It also may include virtual table that are calculated with generic data to enhance the performance.